1. Welcome remarks and introduction to the program by Old Berwick Historical Society lead volunteer (5 mins)
2. Introduction to School Day by Miss Raynes (5 mins)
3. School Day Begins (45 mins)
There are three activities for students. They will spend 15 minutes at each station and will then rotate to the next activity. Miss Raynes, reminded by a volunteer timer, will ring the bell to signal students to move to the next activity.
4. Lessons end for the day (5 mins)
Students reassemble on the benches. Miss Raynes commands attention by rapping the ruler in her hand. She reminds them of the importance of punctuality—school starts promptly at 9:00 and ends at 4:00, so they can walk home in the daylight. She commends them on their work and dismisses them by group in single file. Students will remove their aprons and vests, assisted by
volunteers, and return to the benches for a discussion about their experience at Miss Raynes’ School.
5.Discussion about school then and now (5 mins)
Compare and contrast topics such as classroom rules, expectation of students, teaching style, length of school day and year, and learning materials. Using a copy of Franklin’s Reader and a modern third-grade reader, point out that some things change (color photographs) and some don’t (doodles, notes, and messages in the Franklin Reader).
6. Search and Find (25 mins)
Students are shown a group of objects used in Olive Raynes’s time and asked what they have in common (making cloth). Students are reminded of the story “The Clothes We Wear”
and three kinds of fibers used to make clothes (cotton, linen and wool). Students are divided into pairs to complete a written assignment, searching for objects in the six exhibit cases that are related to clothing.
7. Dismissal from Counting House by lead volunteer.
Thank students for visiting. Remind them of their teaching role with younger grades to prepare them for the Hike.
Welcome to the Counting House Museum! My name is ____________, and I’m a museum teacher. We are happy to have you join us in the place where South Berwick keeps its history. Later this month you will be taking part in a Hike through History about childhood. The Hike will explore children’s lives in our town long ago and how children contributed to their families, schools and community. Who can tell us what contribute means?
On the Hike, you’ll learn about what kids your age did to help out. You’ll also learn about what they did for fun! School plays a big role in the lives of kids like you, so one of the subjects of this year’s Hike through History is school. Today we are going to be teaching you about what it was like to go to school in South Berwick in the late 1800’s, over 100 years ago. As you can imagine, there were things about school that were very different for schoolchildren back then! And some things were almost the same as what you experience today. At the end of our program, we’re going to ask you to compare and contrast what your school days are like with what Miss Olive Raynes’ students experienced. Have you heard of Miss Raynes? You haven’t? She was one of South Berwick’s most beloved teachers and in a few minutes you’re going to meet her! Actually, you’re about to meet _______________, who will play the role of Miss Raynes in a simulation. A simulation is a re-creation of what it was like to live during a certain time. So we will all take part in Miss Raynes’ village school in the 1880’s. Here is a photograph of Miss Raynes and her class from that time, standing in front of the house in South Berwick where she taught school.
We want you to pay close attention today for two reasons. One is that when our school lesson is done, we want to have a lively discussion about what you see that is the same or different about schools in the past, and to do that you must be careful observers. The second reason to watch closely is that we want you to gather facts and clues about the past, like history detectives, so you can bring what you learn back to Central School to teach younger students about old-fashioned village schools. Doesn’t that sound like fun?
Now you need to know a little about the schoolroom. Girls and boys sat on different sides of the room, and if the schoolhouse had two doors, they even came into the building separately! When they came in, they made their manners to Miss Raynes. Who can tell me what it means to make your manners? I’m guessing that you don’t do that anymore! Making your manners means that when the girls greet the teacher, they curtsy, and the boys take a bow. We’ll practice just before your school day begins. The girls wore aprons to keep their school dresses clean of ink and slate dust, and the boys wore vests. You’ll be putting on your own aprons and vests so that you’ll feel just like schoolchildren in the 1800’s felt. In just one minute, I’m going to invite you to take an apron or a vest at the back of the room and to line up outside the girls’ door (by the stairs) and the boys’ door. You know which one to choose, right? We need to be very quiet because Miss Raynes was known for being pretty strict!
Before we start, let’s practice making our manners. Boys will bow (model) and then say, “Good morning, Miss Raynes”. Girls curtsy (model) and say the same thing. Everyone stand up now. Young ladies first (practice). Now the gentlemen’s turn (practice). Now, please go quietly to get dressed for school and to line up outside the doors. I think I hear Miss Raynes coming!
- Enter from kitchen: Stand at front desk
- Greet: Ring bell, use stern face; “Good morning, scholars”
- Await manners; correct manners
- Introduce self: Taught some of your parents and grandparents
- Announce start of term: Almost June; 10 weeks of summer term ahead before haying time in July; gardens planted?
- Responsibility: Some of you are 14 years old, some just 6, so older scholars are responsible for helping younger ones with their lessons.
- Discipline: “You are expected pay strict attention to your schoolwork. Laggards may walk home by moonlight if lessons are not completed” (explain)
- Review chores: water, wood, sweep, wash blackboard
- Assign chores (write names on blackboard):
- Keep wood bin full; wood stove only heat on chilly mornings (2)
- Pump water from well into the bucket for drinking (from ladle) and filling kettle (for peppermint tea) (2)
- Sweep floor (show broom) (1)
- Wash blackboard (rags and bucket) (1)
- Describe: elocution (reading), penmanship and arithmetic
- Care of supplies: Show broken dip pen or slate pencil; show doodle in Franklin’s Reader
- Divide class: Form 3 groups and walk quietly to assigned place.
[Volunteers move benches for reading and math groups]
5. END OF SCHOOL
- Direct students to assemble on benches
- Call to attention: RAP RULER ON BENCH
- Merit awards: “You have completed your work well today, and for that close attention to your studies I am awarding each of you a certificate of merit to
take home (show certificate). You will receive your merit award at the end of the day.” [Pass awards to classroom teacher later, along with copybooks.]
- Punctuality: “Before noon recess, I want to remind my scholars about the importance of punctuality (being on time). School starts promptly at 9:00 in
the morning and ends at 4:00. Your noon meal is 1 hour. Did you bring your dinner pail with you, or are you walking home? (inquire). Be sure to return
- Return costumes: “Now put you vests and aprons on the chairs at the back of the room and return to your seats quietly.”
- Exit to kitchen
1. 6 cents
2. 8 cents = 4 oranges @ 2 cents
3. 10 dollars = 5 bushels corn @ 2 dollars
a. 14 dollars = 7 bushels, 18 dollars = 9 bushels
4. 8 dollars = 2 barrels - 1 barrel flour @ 4 dollars
a. 16 dollars = 4 barrels, 20 dollars = 5 barrels, 24 dollars = 6 barrels
5. 9 dollars = 3 barrels apples @ 3 dollars a barrel
a. 18 dollars = 6 barrels, 27 dollars = 9 barrels
6. 12 cents = 4 quinces @ 3 cents
7. 12 shillings = 3 bushels oats @ 4 shillings.
a. 15 shillings = @ 5 shillings, 18 shillings = @ 6 shillings
8. 12 cents = 4 pounds rice @ 3 cents a pound.
9. 20 cents = 4 pounds - 1 pound raisins @ 5 cent
a. 35 cents = 7 pounds, 45 cents = 9 pounds
10. 12 cents = 2 pounds - 1 pound currants @ 6 cents
a. 18 cents = 3 pounds, 24 cents = 4 pounds, 36 cents = 6 pounds
11. 18 cents = 3 pounds - 1 pound sugar @ 6 cents
a. 24 cents = 4 pounds, 36 cents = 6 pounds, 48 cents = 8 pounds
12. 20 cents = 5 quarts molasses X 4 cents a quart
a. 28 cents = 7 quarts, 36 cents = 9 quarts
13. 18 shillings = 6 gallons vinegar X 3 shillings a gallon
a. 21 shillings = 7 gallons, 27 shillings = 9 gallons, 33 shillings = 11 gallons
14. 25 cents = 5 quarts - 1 quart cherries @ 5 cents
a. 35 cents = 7 quarts, 40 cents = 8 quarts, 45 cents = 9 quarts
15. 14 shillings = 7 pounds of nutmegs X 2 shillings a pound
a. 21 shillings = 3 shillings a pound
16. 15 dollars = 3 barrels - 5 dollars for 1 barrel of flour
a. 35 dollars = 7 barrels
17. 24 dollars = 4 cords - 6 dollars for 1 cord of wood
a. 42 dollars = 7 cords
18. 40 dollars = 8 barrels of flour X 5 dollars a barrel
a. 56 dollars = 7 dollars a barrel
Page 124 Written Arithmetic - Answers:
2. 896 Apples
5. 1980 Books
8. 2226 Dollars
11. 6186 Barrels
Find these objects in the exhibits. Write the number of the exhibit case in the blank space after each question.
Scissors and pins used by a South Berwick family to sew clothes almost 400 years ago. __1____
Shoe made with wooden nails. ___5___
Knife used to make linen cloth. ___2___
Cotton used to build ships. ___3___
Wooden foot used to make shoes. ___5___
A tool used to comb sheep’s wool. ___2___
Cloth woven in a South Berwick factory more than 100 years ago. ___4___
Sewing needle made from the hair of a wild pig, called a boar. ___5___
A tool with two heads and one body. ___2___