..............................................a collaboration between Marshwood School District and Old Berwick Historical Society

Hike Museum Program 2012

Childhood Museum Program: 

Counting House Museum




1. Welcome remarks and introduction to the program by Old Berwick Historical Society lead volunteer (5 mins)

  • Students will enter the ballroom and sit down on the benches. Welcome them and set the stage for the simulation they are about to experience. Explain that during this visit they will be learning about school life as children in South Berwick knew it over 100 years ago.
  • Set the objective that students will compare and contrast schools of the past with their school life today. After participating in a typical day in “Miss Raynes’s Village School,” students will discuss how this experience is like and unlike their own.
  • Show the photograph of Olive Raynes’s class c. 1880. Explain that, just like in the 1800’s, girls will wear aprons and boys will wear vests to school and they will be expected to follow the rules of this time. Teach them how to “make their manners” (bowing or curtsying to the teacher) and allow them to practice twice before dismissing them.
  • Instruct students to go quietly to the back of the room where they will put on aprons or vests. They will then exit the room and silently line up outside the “boys and girls” doors to wait for Miss Raynes to admit them to her schoolroom. Remind them to make their manners before they take their seats.

2. Introduction to School Day by Miss Raynes (5 mins)

  • Miss Raynes enters from the kitchen to the desk and rings the bell. Scholars enter quietly, make their manners, and take their seats. Group 1 (all boys) will sit on the right, Group 2 (all girls) will sit on the left, and Group 3 (both boys and girls) will sit facing Miss Raynes’s desk.
  • Miss Raynes introduces herself, welcomes scholars to the first day of the 10-week summer term, and tells them about her school and expectations for them. She reviews rules and chores. (See Hike through History Miss Raynes page for details.)
  • Miss Raynes reminds them to take good care of their school supplies—dip pens, slates, pencils, and schoolbooks. (Show example of slate and pencil.) She explains the three lessons they will have this morning (penmanship, arithmetic, and reading) and directs one group to each station.

Cursive writing with inkwells 

3. School Day Begins (45 mins)
There are three activities for students. They will spend 15 minutes at each station and will then rotate to the next activity. Miss Raynes, reminded by a volunteer timer, will ring the bell to signal students to move to the next activity.

  • Penmanship (Group 1) – Students will practice their penmanship using pen and ink. Remind them to dip partially and write with a light touch so they don’t go through the paper.
    o Practice slanted and looped lines first; then try cursive letters.
    o Using best penmanship, sign full name on front page of copybook.
  • Arithmetic (Group 2) – Students will use “Greenleaf’s Primary Arithmetic “ book and have five minutes to complete each of the following exercises:
    o Mental Arithmetic (p. 34) This is a partner activity. Students will alternate asking and answering math questions with their partners. They will ask and answer as many as they can
    in five minutes.
    o Slate Work (p. 124) Using slates, students will complete numbers 2, 5, 8, and 11.
    o Units of Measure (p. 100) The whole group works together on the exercise. Take turns reading aloud the chart of measures. Answer numbers 1, 3, and 5 on slates. Clean slates
    when finished.
  • Reading (Group 3) – Students will use the Franklin Second Reader
    o Miss Raynes demonstrates proper elocution and deportment by reading “Oh Summer”
    o Students take turns reading “The Clothes We Wear” aloud.
    o Students will split into groups of two and practice reading aloud two verses in “The Honey Bee” to recite to Miss Raynes.
    o Recite stanzas to Miss Raynes using correct deportment.
    o Miss Raynes distributes certificates of merit to each student.

4. Lessons end for the day (5 mins)

Students reassemble on the benches. Miss Raynes commands attention by rapping the ruler in her hand. She reminds them of the importance of punctuality—school starts promptly at 9:00 and ends at 4:00, so they can walk home in the daylight. She commends them on their work and dismisses them by group in single file. Students will remove their aprons and vests, assisted by
volunteers, and return to the benches for a discussion about their experience at Miss Raynes’ School.

5.Discussion about school then and now (5 mins)

Compare and contrast topics such as classroom rules, expectation of students, teaching style, length of school day and year, and learning materials. Using a copy of Franklin’s Reader and a modern third-grade reader, point out that some things change (color photographs) and some don’t (doodles, notes, and messages in the Franklin Reader).

6. Search and Find (25 mins)

Students are shown a group of objects used in Olive Raynes’s time and asked what they have in common (making cloth). Students are reminded of the story “The Clothes We Wear”
and three kinds of fibers used to make clothes (cotton, linen and wool). Students are divided into pairs to complete a written assignment, searching for objects in the six exhibit cases that are related to clothing.

7. Dismissal from Counting House by lead volunteer.

Thank students for visiting. Remind them of their teaching role with younger grades to prepare them for the Hike.


Joan as Miss Raynes 2012 

Welcome Script for “The Village School” Lesson

Welcome to the Counting House Museum! My name is ____________, and I’m a museum teacher. We are happy to have you join us in the place where South Berwick keeps its history. Later this month you will be taking part in a Hike through History about childhood. The Hike will explore children’s lives in our town long ago and how children contributed to their families, schools and community. Who can tell us what contribute means?

On the Hike, you’ll learn about what kids your age did to help out. You’ll also learn about what they did for fun! School plays a big role in the lives of kids like you, so one of the subjects of this year’s Hike through History is school. Today we are going to be teaching you about what it was like to go to school in South Berwick in the late 1800’s, over 100 years ago. As you can imagine, there were things about school that were very different for schoolchildren back then! And some things were almost the same as what you experience today. At the end of our program, we’re going to ask you to compare and contrast what your school days are like with what Miss Olive Raynes’ students experienced. Have you heard of Miss Raynes? You haven’t? She was one of South Berwick’s most beloved teachers and in a few minutes you’re going to meet her! Actually, you’re about to meet _______________, who will play the role of Miss Raynes in a simulation. A simulation is a re-creation of what it was like to live during a certain time. So we will all take part in Miss Raynes’ village school in the 1880’s. Here is a photograph of Miss Raynes and her class from that time, standing in front of the house in South Berwick where she taught school.

We want you to pay close attention today for two reasons. One is that when our school lesson is done, we want to have a lively discussion about what you see that is the same or different about schools in the past, and to do that you must be careful observers. The second reason to watch closely is that we want you to gather facts and clues about the past, like history detectives, so you can bring what you learn back to Central School to teach younger students about old-fashioned village schools. Doesn’t that sound like fun?

Now you need to know a little about the schoolroom. Girls and boys sat on different sides of the room, and if the schoolhouse had two doors, they even came into the building separately! When they came in, they made their manners to Miss Raynes. Who can tell me what it means to make your manners? I’m guessing that you don’t do that anymore! Making your manners means that when the girls greet the teacher, they curtsy, and the boys take a bow. We’ll practice just before your school day begins. The girls wore aprons to keep their school dresses clean of ink and slate dust, and the boys wore vests. You’ll be putting on your own aprons and vests so that you’ll feel just like schoolchildren in the 1800’s felt. In just one minute, I’m going to invite you to take an apron or a vest at the back of the room and to line up outside the girls’ door (by the stairs) and the boys’ door. You know which one to choose, right? We need to be very quiet because Miss Raynes was known for being pretty strict!

Before we start, let’s practice making our manners. Boys will bow (model) and then say, “Good morning, Miss Raynes”. Girls curtsy (model) and say the same thing. Everyone stand up now. Young ladies first (practice). Now the gentlemen’s turn (practice). Now, please go quietly to get dressed for school and to line up outside the doors.  I think I hear Miss Raynes coming!


 Linda intro


Script for Miss Raynes



- Enter from kitchen: Stand at front desk
- Greet: Ring bell, use stern face; “Good morning, scholars”
- Await manners; correct manners
- Introduce self: Taught some of your parents and grandparents
- Announce start of term: Almost June; 10 weeks of summer term ahead before haying time in July; gardens planted?

- Responsibility: Some of you are 14 years old, some just 6, so older scholars are responsible for helping younger ones with their lessons.
- Discipline: “You are expected pay strict attention to your schoolwork. Laggards may walk home by moonlight if lessons are not completed” (explain)

- Review chores: water, wood, sweep, wash blackboard
- Assign chores (write names on blackboard):
- Keep wood bin full; wood stove only heat on chilly mornings (2)
- Pump water from well into the bucket for drinking (from ladle) and filling kettle (for peppermint tea) (2)
- Sweep floor (show broom) (1)
- Wash blackboard (rags and bucket) (1)

- Describe: elocution (reading), penmanship and arithmetic
- Care of supplies: Show broken dip pen or slate pencil; show doodle in Franklin’s Reader
- Divide class: Form 3 groups and walk quietly to assigned place.
[Volunteers move benches for reading and math groups]

- Direct students to assemble on benches
- Call to attention: RAP RULER ON BENCH

- Merit awards: “You have completed your work well today, and for that close attention to your studies I am awarding each of you a certificate of merit to
take home (show certificate). You will receive your merit award at the end of the day.” [Pass awards to classroom teacher later, along with copybooks.]
- Punctuality: “Before noon recess, I want to remind my scholars about the importance of punctuality (being on time). School starts promptly at 9:00 in
the morning and ends at 4:00. Your noon meal is 1 hour. Did you bring your dinner pail with you, or are you walking home? (inquire). Be sure to return
- Return costumes: “Now put you vests and aprons on the chairs at the back of the room and return to your seats quietly.”

 - Exit to kitchen


Mary teaching math




Page 34 Mental Arithmetic - Answers



1. 6 cents
2. 8 cents = 4 oranges @ 2 cents
3. 10 dollars = 5 bushels corn @ 2 dollars
a. 14 dollars = 7 bushels, 18 dollars = 9 bushels
4. 8 dollars = 2 barrels - 1 barrel flour @ 4 dollars
a. 16 dollars = 4 barrels, 20 dollars = 5 barrels, 24 dollars = 6 barrels
5. 9 dollars = 3 barrels apples @ 3 dollars a barrel
a. 18 dollars = 6 barrels, 27 dollars = 9 barrels
6. 12 cents = 4 quinces @ 3 cents
7. 12 shillings = 3 bushels oats @ 4 shillings.
a. 15 shillings = @ 5 shillings, 18 shillings = @ 6 shillings
8. 12 cents = 4 pounds rice @ 3 cents a pound.
9. 20 cents = 4 pounds - 1 pound raisins @ 5 cent
a. 35 cents = 7 pounds, 45 cents = 9 pounds
10. 12 cents = 2 pounds - 1 pound currants @ 6 cents
a. 18 cents = 3 pounds, 24 cents = 4 pounds, 36 cents = 6 pounds
11. 18 cents = 3 pounds - 1 pound sugar @ 6 cents
a. 24 cents = 4 pounds, 36 cents = 6 pounds, 48 cents = 8 pounds

12. 20 cents = 5 quarts molasses X 4 cents a quart
a. 28 cents = 7 quarts, 36 cents = 9 quarts
13. 18 shillings = 6 gallons vinegar X 3 shillings a gallon
a. 21 shillings = 7 gallons, 27 shillings = 9 gallons, 33 shillings = 11 gallons
14. 25 cents = 5 quarts - 1 quart cherries @ 5 cents
a. 35 cents = 7 quarts, 40 cents = 8 quarts, 45 cents = 9 quarts
15. 14 shillings = 7 pounds of nutmegs X 2 shillings a pound
a. 21 shillings = 3 shillings a pound
16. 15 dollars = 3 barrels - 5 dollars for 1 barrel of flour
a. 35 dollars = 7 barrels
17. 24 dollars = 4 cords - 6 dollars for 1 cord of wood
a. 42 dollars = 7 cords
18. 40 dollars = 8 barrels of flour X 5 dollars a barrel
a. 56 dollars = 7 dollars a barrel

Page 124 Written Arithmetic - Answers:
2. 896 Apples
5. 1980 Books
8. 2226 Dollars
11. 6186 Barrels


 Museum program

The Clothes We Wear: Search and Find Game - Answers 

Find these objects in the exhibits. Write the number of the exhibit case in the blank space after each question.

Scissors and pins used by a South Berwick family to sew clothes almost 400 years ago. __1____
Shoe made with wooden nails. ___5___
Knife used to make linen cloth. ___2___
Cotton used to build ships. ___3___
Wooden foot used to make shoes. ___5___
A tool used to comb sheep’s wool. ___2___
Cloth woven in a South Berwick factory more than 100 years ago. ___4___
Sewing needle made from the hair of a wild pig, called a boar. ___5___
A tool with two heads and one body. ___2___

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